Alzheimer’s disease impacts 24.3 million humans globally and becomes essentially the most serious progressive socio-economical as well as healthcare problems throughout the world. The prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease is approximately 5-10% above the age of 60 years. However it grows substantially up to 40-50% above the age of 85 years and the annual cost of healthcare is anticipated to be about $500 billion by the year 2020 in the United States alone.
Alzheimer’s Disease in General
Alzheimer’s disease is a developing neurodegenerative brain disease that eventually destroys a patient’s memory and ability to learn, make decisions, communicate and perform daily activities. In the course of the condition, short-term memory is affected first which is the result of neuronal dysfunction and degeneration in the hippocampus and amygdala. As the disease advances further, neurons degenerate and perish in several other cortical regions of the brain. In due course, the patient will encounter significant changes in personalities and behavior which includes anxiety, suspicious or irritations, and delusions or perhaps hallucinations.
Growing older is regarded as the critical risk factor in this neurodegenerative condition and oxidative stress is yet another prevailing element. It was revealed that the existence of elevated DNA, RNA and protein oxidation in brains of individual with Alzheimer’s disease and moderate intellectual inability, suggest that oxidative stress is actually an early indicator in Alzheimer’s disease development.
Alzheimer’s Disease Treatment Using Turmeric Curcumin
Turmeric is utilized widely as food preparation ingredient, largely in Asia. Substantial researches by scientists have disclosed its outstanding property, the curcumin. Curcumin has been known to possess remarkable medicinal values. Experts have it classified as polyphenol that can serve as free-radical scavenger and antioxidant that prevent lipid peroxidation and oxidative DNA damage. Curcumin has been used substantially both in-vitro and in-vivo in transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease. The ability of curcumin to scavenge free radicals has been drawn in its prospects as a neuro protective agent.
The potential of curcumin for Alzheimer’s Disease treatment has been studied substantially. Numerous studies have stated the likelihood that curcumin dietary supplement may provide the preventive treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease. In a research carried out at the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA), scientists found that curcumin seems to assist the defense mechanisms to rid of amyloid protein. Amyloid protein is a component of plaque, a substance that accumulates in the brains of an individual with Alzheimer’s disease and is a major factor in the development of the disease.
Alzheimer’s Disease Treatment and Curcumin Dietary Supplement
Despite the fact that there are wide ranging researches and studies on , clinical studies are able to provide evidences on the performance of curcumin in dealing with this disease. It is enlightening that clinical studies are thriving around the world and initial results have shown that curcumin could be the potential alternative for Alzheimer’s Disease treatment. Curcumin for Alzheimer’s Disease treatment
Aksenov, M.Y., Markesbery, W.R. (2001). Changes in thiol content and expression of glutathione redox system genes in the hippocampus and cerebellum in Alzheimer’s disease.Neurosci.Lett. 302(2-3): 141-145
Baldeiras, I., Santana, I., Proenca, M.T., Garrucho, M.H., Pascoal, R., Rodrigues, A., Duro, D., Oliveira, C.R. (2010) Oxidative damage and progression to Alzheimer’s disease in patients with mild cognitive impairment. J. Alzheimers Dis.
Baum, L., Ng, A. (2004). Curcumin interaction with copper and iron suggests one possible mechanism of action in Alzheimer’s disease animal models. J. Alzheimers Dis. 6(4):367-377, discussion 443-449.
Beal, M.F. (1995).Aging, energy and oxidative stress in neurodegenerative diseases. Ann. Neurol. 38(3): 357-366.
Begum, A.N., Jones, M.R., Lim, G.P., Morihara, T., Kim, P., Heath, D.D., Rock, C.L., Pruitt, M.A., Yang, F., Hudspeth, B., Hu, S., Faull, K.F., Teter, B., Cole, G.M., Frautschy, S.A. (2008).Curcumin structure-function, bioavailability and efficacy in models of neuroinflammation and Alzheimer’s disease. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 326:196-208
Coppede, F., Migliore, L. (2009). DNA damage and repair in Alzheimer’s disease. Curr. Alzheimer Res. 6:36-47
Cummings, J.L. (2004). Treatment of Alzheimer’s disease: current and future therapeutic approaches. Rev. Neurol. Dis. 1:60-69.
Dumont, M., Beal, M.F. (2011).Neuroprotective strategies involving ROS in Alzheimer disease.Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 51:1014-1026
Ferri, C.P., Prince, M., Brayne, C., Brodaty, H., Fratiglioni, L., Ganguli, M., Hall, K., Hasegawa, K., Hendrie, H., Huang, Y., Jorm, A., Mathers, C., Menezes, P.R., Rimmer, E., Scazufca, M. (2005). Global prevalence of dementia: a Delphi consensus study. Lancet. 366(9503):2112-2117
Halliwell, B. (1992). Reactive oxygen species and the central nervous system. J. Neurochem. 59(5): 1609-1623
Lovell, M.A., Markesbery, W.R. (2007). Oxidative DNA damage in mild cognitive impairement and late-stage Alzheimer’s disease. Nucleic Acid Res. 35:7497-7504
Lovell, M.A., Markesbery, W.R. (2008). Oxidatively modified RNA in mild cognitive impairment.Neurobiol. Dis. 29:169-175
Lu, T., Pan, Y., Kao, S.Y., Kohane, I., Chan, J., et al. (2004). Gene regulation and DNA damage in the ageing human brain. Nature. 429(6994): 883-891.
Maczurek, A., Hager, K., Kenklies, M., Sharman, M., Martins, R., Engel, J., Carlson, D.A., Mὕnch, G. (2008).Lipoic acid as an anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective treatment for Alzheimer’s disease.Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews. 60:1463-1470.
Markesbery, W.R., Kryscio, R.J., Lovell, M.A., Morrow, J.D. (2005). Lipid peroxidation is an early event in the brain in amnestic mild cognitive impairment. Ann. Neurol. 58:730-735
Nunomura, A., Castellani, R.J., Zhu, X., Moreira, P.I., Perry, G., Smith, M.A. (2006).Involvement of oxidative stress in Alzheimer disease. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. 65: 631-641.
Nunomura, A., Moreira, P.I., Takeda, A., Smith, M.A., Perry, G. (2007). Oxidative RNA damage and neurodegeneration.Curr. Med. Chem. 14:2968-2975
Nunomura, A., Perry, G., Aliev, G., Hirai, K., Takeda, A., Balraj, E.K., Jones, P.K., Ghanbari, H., Wataya, T., Shimohama, S., Chiba, S., Atwood, C.S., Peterson, R.B., Smith, M.A. (2001). Oxidative damage is the earliest event in Alzheimer disease. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. 60:759-767
Pratico, D. (2010). The neurobiology of isoprostanes and Alzheimer’s disease.Biochim.Biophys.Acta. 1801:930-933
Seo, J.S., Leem, Y.H., Lee, K.W., Kim, S.W., Lee, J.K., Han, P.L. (2010). Severe motor neuron degeneration in the spinal cord of the Tg2576 mouse model of Alzheimer disease. J. Alzheimers Dis. 21:263-276
Shukla, P.K., Khanna, V.K., Khan, M.Y., Srimal, R.C. (2003). Protective effect of curcumin against lead neurotoxicity in rat. Hum. Exp. Toxicol. 22:653-658
Smith, D.G., Cappai, R., Barnham, K.J. (2007). The redox chemistry of the Alzheimer’s disease amyloid beta peptide.Biochim.Biophys.Acta. 1768(8): 1976-1990
Smith, M.A. (1998). Alzheimer disease. Int. Rev. Neurobiol. 42: 1-54
Srivastava, R.M., Singh, S., Dubey, S.K., Misra, K., Khar, A. (2011). Immunomodulatory and therapeutic activity of curcumin.International Immunopharmacology. 11:331-341
Stuchbury, G., Mὕnch, G. (2005). Alzheimer’s associated inflammation, potential drug targets and future therapies. J. Neural. Transm. 112:429-453
Zecca, L., Youdim, M.B., Riederer, P., Connor, J.R., Crichton, R.R. (2004). Iron, brain ageing and neurodegenerative disorders. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 5(11): 863-873
(Visited 735 times, 1 visits today)